Richland Township Biographies

John D. Alexander, State's Attorney for the Fourteenth Judicial Circuit, was born in Bloomington, Ind., February 6, 1839, and came with his parents, William and Martha L. (Dunn) Alexander, to Greene County in 1843, where he was raised to manhood. William Alexander was a physician, which profession engaged his attention until his retirement from active life in 1867, after which he removed from the eastern part of the county to Bloomfield, where he died in 18'74 aged seventy-seven years. His widow died in 1883, aged eighty-seven years. Both were natives of Kentucky, but their parents were from the Old Dominion. John D., after receiving the benefits to be derived from the common schools, entered the classical course of the State -University. graduating in 1861. August 18, 1862, he enlisted as private in Company E, Ninety-seventh Indiana Volunteers, and on the company's organization was appointed Orderly Sergeant. In February, 1863, he was advanced to Second Lieutenant, and December 15, 1864, was promoted to the Captaincy of Company D, Ninety-seventh Regiment. In April, 1865, Gen. Logan appointed him Acting Assistant Inspector General of the Second Brigade, First Division, Fifteenth Army Corps, which remained his official duties until being mustered out of service June 9, 1865. Capt. Alexander was a participant in the battles of Vicksburg, Resaca, Kenesaw Mountain, Griswoldville, Ga., Savannah, Columbia and Bentonville. After the war, he took a six months' course at the Law Department of the Michigan State University, subsequently practicing his profession one year at Bedford, and the remainder of the time being engaged in a like pursuit at Bloomfield. In 1880, he was elected Prosecuting Attorney for the Fifteenth Judicial Circuit and in 1882 re-elected to this position, the State Legislature of 1882-83 changing the circuit to the Fourteenth. Capt. Alexander is a Republican in politics, and at present is a member of the law firm of Alexander & Letsinger.

S. W. Axtell, Superintendent of the schools of Greene County, is one of three surviving children in a family of five born to George R. and Amanda (Farnham) Axtell, appropriate mention of whom is made elsewhere in this work The genealogy of this family is traced back in England as early as 1535, to one John Akstyle, a member of a religious order in Hertfordshire. Thomas Axtell, baptized at Berkhamstead, England, January 26, 1619, was undoubtedly the progenitor of the name in the United States. The following are the names of the heads of the different families in a direct line of descent from the Axtell last mentioned, together with their 'respective births: Henry, born in 1641; Daniel, 1673; Thomas, 1727; Thomas, 1750; Thomas, 1797; George R., May 10, 1825. The last on this list is the father of the subject of this memoir, and is a prosperous farmer of Beech Creek Township. S. W. Axtell was born in Knox County, Ohio, June 17, 1850, and when six years old removed with his parents to Greene County, Ind., locating in Beech Creek Township, where he was raised, and largely educated. After attending the best schools afforded in the county, he entered the State University the term of 1871-72, and in July 1874, graduated from the law department of that institution. The same month of his graduation, he located for the practice of his profession in Bloomfield, and has ever since resided here, being at present a member of the well-known legal firm of Pickens, Axtell & Moffett. For several years Mr Axtell has been at work perfecting a complete set of abstracts of title for lands in Greene County, and is now prepared to furnish anything in his line. He is a Democrat, and in 1876 was elected County Superintendent, which position he has ever since held, making one of the best Superintendents the county ever had. Through many obstacles and against the advice of older heads, he undertook the system of grading the schools of the county, and has made it a flattering success. In a like manner, he was successful in. perfecting the graduation system, which he claims is not a fabric woven in the loom of fancy, but a complete system of common-sense plans. Mr. Axtell, at one time, was the candidate of his party for State's Attorney, but owing to a Republican majority in -the district, suffered defeat. His marriage with Miss Mary J. Gray was solemnized February 16, 1861, and by her is the father of this family: Aden F., deceased, G. W., Ilie M., Casper B., Edna M. and Nita Vera. The parents are members of the Christian Church.

G. W. Beard, editor of the Bloomfield News, is a native of the Hoosier State born December 28, 1836, in Harrison County. He was one of six sons and two daughters born to the marriage of Jesse Beard and Charlotte Bullock, who were natives respectively of Virginia and Georgia, and of Irish-Scotch descent. G. W. was raised in his native, county to manhood, receiving the greater part of his education from the common schools, and when about sixteen years old was apprenticed to the printer's trade on the Western Argus, of Corydon. For eight years, he was employed on the mechanical part of this periodical, then became editor and proprietor, continuing as such until the breaking-out of the rebellion. August 22, 1861, he enrolled his name as a private in Company B, Third Indiana Cavalry, and was an active participant in the battles of Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, the Wilderness and numerous other engagements, amounting in all to 120. May 11, 1864, while on Sheridan's raid to Richmond, he received a severe grape-shot wound in the left hip. September 7, 1864, he was honorably discharged from the service, wearing, as a mark of honor, a Sergeant's chevron. For one season, Mr. Beard farmed in Lawrence County; then engaged in mercantile business in Greene County, which he continued until 1874, afterward farming five years or thereabouts. Since 1879, he has resided in Bloomfield, engaged in journalism. Miss Angie Broaddus became his wife on the 8th of February, 1864, and to their union have been born six children—Lena, Broaddus, Jennie, Stannard, Daisy and Georgia. The mother is a member of the Presbyterian Church. Mr Beard is one of the prominent Republicans of the county, and through the News is doing valuable work for his party. He issues a bright, attractive paper weekly, filled with able editorials and spicy local news, which is fast becoming the weekly visitor of all the better families of Greene County.

Evan A. Bonham, Sheriff of Greene County and a native of Wright Township, was born June 10, 1852, and is a son of David Bonham, appropriate mention of whom is made elsewhere in this work. After receiving a preliminary education in his native township, Evan A. 'attended the seminary at Sullivan one year, then, in company with a brother, William A., took an extended trip through the West and Southwest. In 1871, he entered Judsonian University, in White County, Ark., his brother the same year purchasing forty acres of land there for the purpose of embarking in fruit-raising. William A. is yet residing there, and operates a farm of 170 acres, 110 of which are devoted exclusively to fruit raising. In 1872, Evan A. returned to Greene County and embarked in saw-milling and farming in Wright and Stockton Townships. In 18 74 and a part of 1875, he was an attendant at Franklin College, but in 1876 was a student at the Newbury Normal School, where he prepared for the teacher's profession. The latter occupation served to engage his attention for six years, and during Mr. Bonham's pedagogical career, he met with deserved success. April 27, 1871, he was married to Miss Winnie E. Hicks, a native of Iowa, and a teacher of five years' experience in Greene County, and one son has blessed their union—Leon J., born October 28, 1881. Mr. Bonham is a Republican in politics, a member of the Baptist Church—as is also Mrs. Bonham—and is one of the best Sheriffs ever Greene County had. He was elected to this office in 1882, and is filling its requirements to the entire satisfaction of all concerned.

David Butcher, deceased, ex-Treasurer of Greene County, was one of eight children born to Richard and Rebecca (Boruff) Butcher. His father dying when he was eleven years old, the burden in caring for the family fell on his shoulders, and at this critical period he embarked in his struggle for a home and an honored name. He was enabled to secure only a limited schooling, but by diligence in after years secured a good, practical education. On leaving the farm, he went to Bloomington, there learning wagon-making, and in 1850 married Carrie Finley, who bore him two children, only one—David F —yet living. In 1854, the mother died, after which Mr. Butcher moved to Sullivan and worked at his trade until his removal to Bloomfield in 1856. At this place, he embarked in the drug trade, at which ho continued until he sold out to enter upon the4luties of County Treasurer, to which position he had been duly elected, 'awl after one term of two years he was re-elected, serving in all four years. Mr. Butcher was an honest citizen, an obliging neighbor. and a loving husband and father. He was well. known and universally respected for his many sterling qualities, his pureness of heart and simplicity of manners. Ho was twice married, his widow having been Mina V. Hopkins, a native of Ireland, by whom he was the father of three children—John V. (deceased), Stella and Cora. Mr., Butcher was a member of the Christian Church and the Masonic fraternity, and a Democrat in polities.

Samuel R. Cavins was born in Green County, Ky., in .1702. Before he was of age, he went to Vincennes, and remained there several years. While at Vincennes, he went on a hunting excursion (about the year 1813) up White River, and the party landed in Greene County, just above the mouth of `Richland Creek, near the old Indian graveyard. After that he returned to Kentucky. In 1814, he entered the army as a substitute, and served under Gen Jackson, at the battle of New Orleans. In 1822, he returned to Indiana again, and settled in Monroe County, near Harmony. In 1825, he moved to Lawrence County, near Springville. He moved to Greene County in 182'7, and settled on Indian Creek, near Owensburg. In the year 1833, he settled on a farm in Richland Township, adjoining the farm of David Heaton. In 1835, he moved to Bloomfield, and resided there until his death, which was in 1864. In 1828, he was elected Associate Judge of the Circuit Court, and held the office until 1834, when he resigned. He was Assessor for the east side of White River for the year 1831. In 1835, he was elected Clerk, and entered upon the duties of the office in 1835, and held. the office continuously until 1855. He raised nine children to be grown, and had several to die in infancy. He was well known throughout the county for his hospitality and liberality, and especially remembered for the numerous instances .'n which he befriended the poor. Though well advanced in years at the tawe of the last war; there was no man in the county, of any age more active or loyal. He was Draft Commissioner, and was so energetic that more than once was in imminent danger of serious personal injury. His portrait will be found in this volume.

Col. Aden G. Cavins was born in Lawrence County, Ind., October 24, 1827, and is a son of Samuel R. Cavins. He received in youth only such schooling as was obtainable at that early day, and his literary education was completed with three years' instruction at Asbury University. He afterward read law, and graduated from the Law Department of the State University in 1840. He then practiced his profession in Bloomfield until 1858, when he removed to Nebraska City, Neb., remaining there two years, and representing his locality in the Lower House of the Legislature. In 1861, he returned to Greene County, the same year recruiting a company for the Fifty-ninth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and was commissioned Captain of Company E in November of the same year. Capt. Cavins was with Pope on his expedition to New Madrid in the spring of 1862, and after the evacuation of Island No. 10 went with his regiment to Pittsburg Landing, and was present at the siege of Corinth. For distinguished services, Gov. Morton in 1862 commissioned him Major of the Ninety-seventh Indiana Volunteers, and while at Holly Springs in December of the same year, he was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel of his regiment. After participating in the siege of Vicksburg, he was in the engagement at Jackson, Miss., where his horse was killed by a cannon ball from the enemy. Col. Cavins was actively engaged at, Mission Ridge, from whence his command moved to the relief of Burnside at Knoxville, which was one of the hardest campaigns of the rebellion. Succeeding this, he was an active participant in the battles of Resaca, Dallas, New Hope Church, and June 15, 1864, his command captured 700 of the enemy, including a large part of the Thirty-first Alabama Regiment, with field and staff officers. He led his regiment at Kenesaw Mountain. and at Atlanta his command again gained renown by capturing the Fifth Confederate Tennessee Regiment, which killed the gallant McPherson. Col. Cavins was also in the engagements at Ezra Chapel, on the right of Atlanta and Jonesboro. He remained in command of the Ninety-seventh from Goldsboro until its arrival at Washington City, where he was mustered out as Colonel. Since that time, he has b6Sn actively engaged in the practice of law at Bloomfield, standing second to none at the bar of Greene County. He is a stanch Republican, and in 1880 was Presidential Elector for the Second Congressional District. In 1851, he was married to Julia Taylor, who died in 1854, leaving two sons, only one (Edward) yet living. To his second marriage, with Matilda Livingston, eight children have been born—William L., Hugh L., Josephine, Lelia, Aden L., Francis L., Margaret, and Lee (deceased). Mrs. Cavins is a daughter of Hugh L. Livingston, a pioneer lawyer of Indiana, who was descended from an old and honored family.

Col. E. H. C. Cavins, a native of Greene County, Ind., was born in Jackson Township April 16, 1832, and was raised to manhood in Bloomfield, where he acquired his early education. He afterward took.two years' course at Asbury University, then read law with his brother, denG., and in 1853 graduated from the Law Department of the State University. He then began the practice of law in Bloomfield, and in 1858 served as a member of the State Legislature. In the spring of 1861, he recruited Company D; was mustered into service as Captain of this company, which went out as a part of the Fourteenth Indiana Volunteers. They were first under McClellan and Rosecrans in West Virginia, but in 1862 were with Gen. Shields in the Shenandoah Valley campaign and the battle of Winchester. They were then transferred to the Army of the Potomac, and became a part of the Second. Army Corps, which covered the retreat from the Peninsula and from second Bull Run. In August, 1862, Capt. Cavins was advanced to Major of the Fourteenth, and the fall of this year participated in the battle of Antietam where he was wounded in the left hand, and shortly after which he was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel. He commanded his regiment at Fredericksburg, and from the official reports the dead from the Fourteenth laid nearest the enemy's works. Chancellorsville and Gettysburg were the next important battles in which Col. Cavins was engaged, succeeded by Mórton's. Ford, where he commanded two regiments and where his horse was shot under him. Shortly after this, he returned to Indiana to recruit his regiment, and on reporting for duty at Washington was assigned command of a provisional brigade, detached from the Army of the Potomac, of which he continued in command during the remainder of his term of service, which culminated in the battle of Cold Harbor. In 1864, he was commissioned Colonel, and June 20, 1864, received his final discharge. He was then made Adjutant General for the Southern Division of the State, under Gen. Hughes, and served as such during the remainder of the war. During the rebellion, Col. Cavins participated in over fifty pitched battles and skirmishes. Since then, he has been actively engaged in the practice of his profession at Bloomfield, where he has attained a prominent position at the bar of Greene County. He is a member of the Presbyterian Church, a Republican, and a Royal Arch Mason. To his marriage with Miss Ann M. Downing, solemnized October 23, 1855, four children have been born—Samuel R., Carrie Belle, Ida L. and Susie F. The mother was born in March, 1836, in Greene County, and is a daughter of the old pioneer, Alexander Downing.

John J. Clifft, a native of Kentucky, born February 22, 1837, is one of seven children, born to Thomas and Melinda (Jones), Clifft, natives respectively of Tennessee and Kentucky, and maternally of Dutch descent. The family removed to Monroe County, Ind., in 1838, and settled near the Greene County line, making these two counties their home until the death of Thomas Clifft, in the latter county, May 18, 1861, aged fifty-nine years. His widow afterward married a Mr. Clark, and died in Illinois in about 1874. John J. Clifft was raised a farmer; receiving but limited advantages, and on attaining his majority started in life for himself. During the holidays of 1861 and 1862, he enlisted as a private in Company B, Sixtieth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, the first battle of his company being Munfordville, where the greater part of the. Sixtieth Regiment was captured by Gen. Morgan s command. At the time of this battle, Mr. Clifft was sick at the Louisville hospital with typhoid fever and consequently escaped capture. He was an active participant in the battle of Walnut Hills before the siege of Vicksburg, and all through this remarkable siege, being wounded June 3, 1863 in the left shoulder, from the effects.of which he is yet a sufferer. He was next in the engagement at Grand Coteau Prairie, where he received his second wound, which was much more severe than the former one, it being through the right shoulder and side, leaving a gaping and terribly lacerated wound. Not receiving immediate attention and being unable to help himself, his wound attracted flies in abundance, and erelong it was swarming with maggots. For about four weeks he was in the hospital; then, although not really able to do so, rejoined his regiment and remained in active service until his discharge in April, 1865. After the war, he farmed and worked at the stone-mason's trade in Greene County until July, 1883, when he came to Mineral City, and in partnership with R. Haywood started a general store which they have since continued. Mr. Clifft is a member of the National party, the I. O. 0. F.; and was married in 1867, to Rhoda Arm Minks, by whom he is the father of six children: Mary E., Ida M.(deceased), Nora A., William L., James W. and Thursia J.

Dr. S. C. Cravens, the oldest established physician of Bloomfield, was born in Jefferson County, Ind., January 3, 1839, and is descended from English and Irish ancestors, his parents being John C. and Nancy M. Cravens. His early education was obtained at Hanover, and in 1861 came to Greene County and began teaching school in Daviess County, at the same time devoting his spare hours to the study of medicine. In 1863, he continued these studies under the direction of Dr. J. N. Conley, and the session of 1863 and 1864 attended Rush Medical College at Chicago, after which he was associated in the practice of his profession with his preceptor. The term of 1865 and 1866 he returned to Rush College and graduated, and for one year, beginning in February, 1869, he was in partnership with Dr. Gray. In 1870, he took a course of instruction at Long Island College Hospital, New York, receiving the ad eundem degree, and has ever since been intimately connected with the medical history of Greene County. For a time, he was associated with his brother, Dr. T. A. Cravens, but in 1881 this connection was severed, and the same year our subject took a post-graduate course at Rush; since then he has been practicing in partnership with Dr. Rankin, and this firm ranks among the first practitioners of the county. Dr. Cravens is an enterprising and esteemed citizen, and is connected With some of the leading organizations of Bloomfield. He was married to Mary L. Routt, in 1866, and they are the parents of four living children.

R. E. Eveleigh, Postmaster and druggist, is a native of Bloomfield, born August 31, 1848. After attending the public schools of hisnative town, he entered the scientific course of the State University in 1867, graduating in 1869. For a period, he was employed in clerking, but in October, 1-875, he embarked in business on his own responsibility in Bloomfield, with a stock of drugs and books valued at about $1,000. He has ever since continued this line of business, and owing to his increase in trade has been enabled to establish one of the most successful mercantile houses in Bloomfield. At present, his stock consists of upward of $5,000 worth of drugs and books, and his annual sales will reach about $15,000. Mr. Eveleigh is a member of the fraternity of Odd Follows, is a Republican in politics, and in October, 1875, was appointed Postmaster at Bloomfield, a position he yet occupies.

A. J. Faucett was born in Orange County, N. C., October 31, 1816, and when eighteen years old removed with his parents, George and Elizabeth (Killion) Faucett, to Orange County, Ind., where the parents continued to reside until their respective deaths. Family tradition hath it that the name came originally from England,.but at the battle of the Boyne they became residents of Ireland, whence William Fausett (who spelled the family name with an " s "),.grandfather of A. J., emigrated to North Carolina during the eighteenth century. Being strongly opposed to slavery, led to the removal of the family of George Faucett to Indiana. A. J. Faucett received but little educational or other advantages, and his youthful days were passed bn a farm November 1, 1838, he married Almira D. FelloWs, a daughter of Col. Levi Fellows, who settled in Greene County in 1819. In 1839, he and wife removed to the farm on which Mr. Faucett uow resides, and building a small frame house, began clearing and farming. When rebellion was threatening to overthrow our country in 1861, he assisted raising Company E, Fifty-ninth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, in which he became a private, and with which he remained until being honorably discharged at Goldsboro, N. C., in April, 1865. He was a participant in some of the hardest campaigns and most hotly contested battles of the rebellion, among the latter being New Madrid, Island No. 10, Corinth, Vicksburg, Mission Ridge, Savannah, Columbia and Bentonville, besides numerous minor skirmishes and engagements. He was commissioned First Lieutenant of Company E on the 6th of September, 1863, and owing to the Captain's resignation the fall of 1864, he commanded the company until the close of the war. Since then, Mr. Faucett has been engaged in farming and milling in Greene County. To his marriage was born this family: George W. (was a volunteer of Company D, Fourteenth Indiana Volunteer Infantry; was wounded at the Wilderness, and died of this wound at Fredericksburg, Va.), Levi J., Theodore, Austin D., Mary J., Caroline E., Celestia, Hattie and Schuyler. Of the above, all are dead except Levi J. and Celestia. The mother died October 7, 1869. Mr. Faucett is a Master Mason, a Republican, and is the owner of 308 acres of good land in Richland Township.

Levi J. Faucett, a progressive and self-made man of Greene County, was born in the township where he now resides July 27, 1843, and is a son of A. J. Fawcett. After receiving his preliminary education in the common schools, he completed his schooling with a three years' collegiate course. In 1869. he became his father's partner in saw milling; having purchased the old water saw and grist mill owned by Col. Fellows. In five years, this partnership was dissolved, Levi J. continuing two years longer, when, owing to injury to the property occasioned by high water be removed to Mineral City, where he erected an excellent steam saw mill, and for years conducted the largest lumber business of any mill in the county. In 1883, he removed his mill fixtures one-half mile west of Mineral City, where he has a new and commodious building built in the shape of a "T," the main building being 28x60 feet, and the other 28x72. The engine` room attached is 12x30 feet, in which is a 50-horsepower engine and boiler of the most improved kind. Besides his double circular saw, which has a capacity of 10,000 feet per day he has five smaller rotary saws. This is, without exception, the best and most handily arranged saw mill in Greene County, giving employment to about fifteen men, and causing an annual trade of $10,000 to be transacted. Besides this property, Mr. Fancett owns 200 acres of land in Richland Township, and a part of the tract of land entered by his grandfather, Col. Levi Fellows. To his marriage with Susan V. Ashton October 25, 1871, six children have been born—Joseph A., Charles W., John M. (deceased), Wendell, Frank and Hattie A. (deceased). Mr. Faucett served six months in the late war as a private in Company C, One Hundred and Forty seventh Indiana Volunteer Infantry. He enlisted in February, 1865, and was discharged the following July. In politics, he is a Republican, and be and wife belong to the Methodist Episcopal Church.

William Hains, a native of Coshocton County, Ohio, was born January 16, 1842 and is the next youngest of seven children born to Daniel and Sarah (Foster) Hains. His father was a native of the "Keystone State," and a farmer by occupation, both of whom are now dead. William Hains was raised on his parents' farm, received but a common schooling in his youth, and August 15, 1862, enlisted as a private in the ranks of Company H, Ninety-seventh Ohio Volunteer Infantry. If ever soldier deserved praise and honor for gallant and meritorious services, William Hains should not be forgotten in this respect. After leaving Camp Zanesville in October, 1862, his regiment started on the Cumberland campaign, their first important battle being at Stone Eiver. Succeeding this, Mr. Haim was a participant in the engagements of Murfreesboro to Tullahoma, Chickamauga, Chattanooga, Resaca, Dallas, Kenesaw Mountain, besides various smaller battles; 8 o'clock P. M., on the 17th of June, 1864, after the rebel rifle pits bad been taken at Kenesaw Mountain, he was shot by a minie ball between the shoulder and elbow of the left arm, and after fourteen hours' waiting, his arm was amputated near the shoulder joint. His brother, Samuel -Haim, was wounded in the right elbow at this same battle. This effectually put an end to his further military career and resulted in his discharge December 17, 1884. Mr. Haim returned to Ohio, farmed three years and was married May 5, 1865, to Mary J. Markley. They removed to Greene County, Ind., in 1868, and farmed until 1876, when they came to Bloomfield and embarked in merchandising. In two years, Mr. Hains sold out and operated a dray until the fall of 1883, when he established himself in the restaurant business, which he has since successfully continued. He is a stanch Republican, owns eighty acres of land in Taylor Township, besides town property; he and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and parents of three children—Mary M., Agnes and Asbury.

J. J. Hardy, proprietor of the National House, was born in Brown County, Ky. February 6, 1823, and is one of five children born to Benjamin F. and Amy (Pedigo) Hardy. Benjamin F. was a native of Paris,France, and a Lieutentant in the British Army during the war of 1812. He was wounded at New Orleans, and at this battle succeeded in deserting and joining the American troops. He was a blacksmith by trade, and after the war settled in Barren County, Ky , where he married our subject's mother, who was a native of Virginia. In 1830, while returning from a neighbor's to whom he had sold a farm for $3 000, he was murdered and robbed. His widow and children moved to Mooresville Ind., in 1832, in a four-horse wagon, afterward removing to Lawrence County where Mrs. Hardy died in 1865. At ten years of age, J. J. Hardy began life s battle for himself. Until seventeen years old, he was clerking in Springville, after which he learned blacksmithing, and in 1844 settled at Point Commerce, where he remained two years working at his trade. In 1845, he married Frances M. Gainey, and in 1848 went io Bedford and worked at carriage and wagon making until 1862. In August of this year, he helped recruit Company G, Fourth Indiana Cavalry, of which he was made Commissary Sergeant. Mr. Hardy saw much hard service during the late war, and is credited with being a fearless soldier and a prudent officer. He was in the battles of Shelbyville, Alpine, Summerville, Chickamauga, Jonesboro, Chattanooga, Franklin and Nashville, besides numerous skirmishes and engagements. In September, 1864, he was examined by the Military Board and was commissioned Lieutenant of the Fifteenth United States Colored Troops by the President. Shortly after this, he took command of 200 independent scouts and continued in command until being mustered out of service April 7, 1866, as brevet Major. Maj. Hardy was three times wounded, the worst of these being at Cedar Hill, Tenn., where he was shot through the neck, from the effects of which he is yet a sufferer. After the war, he embarked in the livery business at Bedford, but in July, 1868, came to Bloomfield, where he has since resided. In 18'74, he started in the livery business here, and two years later built his present stable. In 1881, he erected the National House of which he is the present popular proprietor. By his first wife he was the father of one daughter—Laura E. In 1868, he was married to Mrs. Julia A. (Ferguson) Milam, to which, union is born one daughter--Jennie E. Mrs. Hardy was the widow of ex-County Clerk, John I. Milam, by whom she had four children, only one yet living—Mrs. Nettie Beaty.

John L. Harrel, County "Auditor, was born in Richland Township, Greene County, Ind., February 8, 1842, and is one of three children born to James and Emily J. (Harrah) Harrel. Being left an orphan when a small boy, John L. lived with an aunt in Putnam County until he arrived to years of maturity. He became a private in Company D, Fiftieth Indiana Volunteers, on the 3d of October. 1861, and his first year's military experience consisted largely in doing guard duty. He was sick at Louisville at the time of his regiment's capture at Munfordville on the 17th of September, 1862, but he rejoined this exchanged regiment at Indianapolis in time to participate in the campaign along the M. & 0. R. R., and. the battle' at Parker's Cross Roads with Gen. Forrest. After guarding the M. & 0., and M. & C. Railways for a time. they were transferred to the department of the Arkansas, subsequently joining Gen Steele in the campaign against and capture of Little Rock. Succeeding this, they were employed at guard duty near Lewisburg until March, 1864; then rejoined Steele, who, in conjunction with Gen. Banks, moved against Shreveport. On this expedition, Mr. Harrel was a participant in the engagements at Terre Noire Creek, Little Missouri, Prairie De Halese, Poison Springs and the–capture of Camden. Owing to Banks' defeat, they re. treated to Little Rock, and at the battle of Saline River Mr. Harrel was wounded in the left foot and taken prisoner. He remained in confinement at Tyler, Texas until February 26,. 1865, when he was exchanged, and April 16, 1865, was mustered out of service. From this time until he assumed the duties of County Auditor, Mr. Harrel engaged in farming in his native township. He was elected in 1878, and in 1882 re-elected, and has proven an honest and efficient official. In 1866, his marriage with Margaret Williams was solemnized, and one son—James Elmer--has blessed their union. Mr. Harrel is a Republican, and owns a farm of 100 acres in Richland Township.

Daniel B. Hatfield, grocer, was born in Jackson Township, Greene County, Ind , May 1, 1838. His father, Mordica Hatfield, was a native of Campbell County Tenn., born November 17, 1818, and was descended from Irish ancestors. Ale Hatfield, father of Mordica, together with his family, removed to Indiana in 1831, and was induced to locate in Greene County by reason of fine water facilities and an abundance of wild game. They settled in Jackson Township and occupied their time largely in hunting, becoming justly celebrated as hunters. In about 1844, Ale Hatfield died. Mordica married Millie Richardson when seventeen years old, and fourteen children blessed this union, all of whom were raised to maturity, Ten of these were daughters, six being twins, and the entire family are now married. The sons of Ale Hatfield, not receiving any schooling, were unable to read or write, but they all became honored and respected citizens, as have also their children. Mordica Hatfield was an ordained preacher of the Baptist Church for over twenty-five years. He died September 14, 1869, followed by his widow April 8, 1875. D. B Hatfield was raised and educated in his native township. November 17, 1859, he married Miss Rachel Burcham, who died May 15, 1873, leaving four children the following three—Wesley M., Laura E. and Serepta M.—yet living, and John L., deceased. Mr. Hatfield enlisted August 16, 1862, in Company G, Ninety-seventh Indiana Volunteer Infantry, served three years, during the war participating in all the battles from Buzzard's Roost to Atlanta, at the latter place being wounded by a minie ball in the right thigh. After recovering from this wound, he was transferred to Rock Island, and detailed on guard duty where he remained until discharged July 16, 1865. He then came home, farmed four years, and in 1870 entered upon the duties of County Recorder, having been elected the preceding year. After serving four years he was re-elected, serving in all eight years. For two years he practiced law but since that time has been engaged in merchandising. He married his first wife's sister. Violet Burcham, October 1, 1873, to which union three children were born—Onias, Daniel B. and Mary V., all deceased. The mother died March 24, 1878. Mr. Hatfield married Marie H. Alexander June 9, 1878, by whom he is the father of two sons—Thomas R. and Alexander H. He is a Democrat, a member of. the F. & A. M., and a non-affiliating member of the I 0. 0. F.

D. M. Hilderbrand, a native of the "Keystone State," was born in the year 1824, a son of Michael and Christina (Harsh) Hildebrand. His early years were passed in assisting his parents on the home farm and attending subscription schools, such as were common at that period.' In 1845, his union with Miss Margaret Keys was solemnized, and the following named of the seven children born to them are yet living: Henry vir Ira A, James Br.' Mc., Louella and Carrie E. Mr. Hildebrand came to Greene County, Ind„ in 1882, purchased the farm of Dr. H. V. Nor-yell, in Richland Township, and has since resided here, where he has won the respect and esteem of his fellow-men. His eldest son purchased the Richland Flouring Mills on Richland Creek, and is now producing an excellent quality of flour, which meets the approbation of those who patronize the mill. Although but a recent corner to Greene County, Mr. Hildebrand is taking an active part in the welfare of his adopted county. In politics, he is Democratic, and both he and his wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

Henry C. Hill (deceased), son of John and Jane (Johnson) Hill, was born in Greene County, Ind., December 13, 1834, and was always a resident of his native county. He received a liberal literary education, read law with William Mack, now of Terre Haute, and after his graduation from the. Law Department of the State University in 1859, formed a partnership with his preceptor and embarked in the practice of his profession. He was a man of keen discernment, possessed of superior qualifications for his profession, but in the midst of a successful career was compelled to relinquish active pursuits by reason of ill-health, which culminated in his death May 4, 1865. Mr. Hill was a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, a Democrat, and for some time held the office of County School Examiner. His father migrated from North Carolina to Greene County at an early day, and became one of our early pioneers. June 25, 1861, witnessed the marriage of Henry C. Hill and Miss Emma Ritter. Mrs. Hill is yet living in Greene County, where she was born, raised and has always resided.

Marion Hindman (deceased.) was born in Dubois County, Ind., October 20, 1840 the eldest of six children born to John B. and Maria (McDonald) Hindman,who were of Irish extraction. When a small boy, he came with his parents to Greene County, where he received a fair education. He began reading medicine but on the news of the fall of Sumter relinquished his previous intentions, and October 12, 1861, enlisted in Company I, Forty-first Indiana Reg. (Cay.) He was a faithful and fearless soldier, and a participant in some of the hardest campaigns of the late war. He was honorably 'discharged October 4, 1864, then returned to Greene County and embarked in the drug trade at Newberry; afterward the dry goods business; but in 1875 sold out and began dealing in stock. He was married, July 4, 1867, to Miss Margaret E. Slinkard two children being the blessing of their union—Laura A. and Frank M. Mr. Hindman was a man of push and energy, as well as one of the county's most valued citizens. He assisted liberally in the advancement of all laudable public measures, and by industry had accumulated a comfortable income. Although a member of no church, he was a Christian in the fullest sense of the word and his death, November 5, 1878, was universally regretted. Mrs. Hindman moved to Bloomfield with her children in 1879, where she has since resided.

T. D. Huff, one of the oldest established merchants of Bloomfield, was born in Washington County, Ind., March 14, 1817, and is a son of Stephen and Elizabeth Huff, natives respectively of West Virginia and Kentucky. He received but a common education, taught school for some time, and when twenty-two years old began mercantile life in Martinsburg, which he continued until 1864. In February of that year,he openeu general store on the northeast corner of the square in Bloomfield, with a $3,000 stock of goods, but in 1868 he removed to the north side, where he continued selling goods until his removal to his present location in 1878. In 1877, he began the erection of his brick business block, which was completed the year following at a cost of $5, 500. Mr. Huff has been one of the most successful and reliable merchants ever in Bloomfield, and by his own energy and industry has accumulated a corafortable fortune. He owns one dry goods store one grocery and provision store, and a two-thirds interest in the hardware store of Huff & Rankin in Bloomfield. His capital invested in merchandising in the town amounts to $20,000. and he yearly transacts a business of about $65,000. Mr. Huff is a Republican, and to his marriage with Caroline Andrews which was consummated in September, 1850, five children have been born. The parents are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

Harvey W. Letsinger, son of Lewis P. and Margaret (Thorlton) Letsinger, was born in Wright Township, Greene Co., Ind., May 24, 1849. His parents were natives of Tennessee and emigrated North to Indiana at a very early period in the history of the Hoosier State, iodating first in Clay County, but afterward removing to Wright Township, this county, where Mr. Letsinger died in February, 1878. On first coming to this locality, the country was yet in its infancy,. and Mr. Letsinger obtained his land by entering it from the Government. Being a pioneer and inured to the hardships of pioneer life, he would leave his sons to look after the farm at home while he would take contracts for clearing, and with the proceeds derived from his labors invest in more land, so that he became one of the large land owners of the township Hunting was his favorite pastime, and during his leisure hours would spend the time with his gun, and rarely return without abundant proof of his skill as a marksman. He was a leading spirit in the Methodist Church, and although a man of quiet and retiring disposition, was decisive in his views on all the leading topics of the day. He first became a member of the Whig party in politics, but in 1856 joined the Republicans, with whom he ever afterward worked in harmony. Six of his sons went to battle with the right during the rebellion, three of whom found. soldiers' graves in Southern soil, two dying of wounds and one of disease. Three sons-in-law fought for their country's flag in this war, and two never fully recovered from its effects but have joined those on their final march. Harvey W. Letsinger is the youngest of this family, numbering in all thirteen children, seven of whom are yet living. He is of German-Irish descent; was raised on the home farm, secured an academical education, and for seven terms was engaged in teaching school. The fall of 1873, he entered the Law Department of the State University, graduating in 1875, and in March of the succeeding year associating himself in partnership in the practice of his profession with Capt. J. D. Alexander. In politics, Mr. Letsinger is a Republican and has served as Deputy County Treasurer and Assistant State's Attorney. Miss Mary Cushman became his wife December 24, 1879, and they are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church and the parents of one son—Reed A.

Howard R. Lowder, M. D., was born in Lawrence County, Ind., February 14, 1845. He is a son of Milton Lowder, and grandson of Ralph Lowder, the latter locating in Lawrence County in 1814, when their nearest neighbor lived ten, miles away, and where the former's birth occurred in 1819. Milton married Anna Storm, who was born in Greene County in 1818, whose father served the colonies eight years in their struggle for independence, and both the Lowder and Storm families are among the earliest pioneers of Southern Indiana. Howard R. Lowder is one of the successful physicians of Greene County. At an early age, he entered the State University, but did not complete the Sophomore year until 1868. August 25, 1861, being then only sixteen years old, he enlisted in Company F, Forty-third Indiana Volunteer Infantry; served nearly three years as a private, but on the re-organization of the regiment was made First Sergeant, and November 19, 1864, was promoted to First Lieutenant and Adjutant. He served in this capacity until being mustered out of service June 16, 1865. He was an active factor in the battles of New Madrid, Ruddle's Point, surrender of Memphis, Fort Pemberton, Helena, Missouri River and Jenkins' Ferry. In 1871, be began the study of medicine, teaching school during the time to defray expenses. Previous to his graduation from the Indiana Medical College in February, 1875, Dr. Lowder practiced at Harrodsburg and Parke. In 1875, he located in Bloomfield where he has the confidence and esteem of the citizens. April 6, 1865, he married Miss F. J. Kissell, and to them four children have been born, only two yet living. Dr. Lowder is a Republican and a Royal Arch Mason.

John Miller, Jr., a native of Lebanon County, Penn., and one of the present Commissioners of Greene County was born October 10, 1830. The year succeeding his birth, his parents, John and Elnora (Imboden) Miller, moved to Wayne County, Ohio, where he was reared and educated. John Miller, Sr., pursued his trade of blacksmith after going to the Buckeye State, and also farmed to some extent, having purchased a tract of land from his limited means. In order to obtain more land at a low price, he and family removed to Indiana in 1850, purchasing 240 acres in Richland Township, Greene County, paying for the same $2,000. Mrs. Miller died October 3, 1865, and Mr. Miller married for his second wife, Mrs. Elizabeth (Barton) Osborn, with whom he lives, a retired life near Bloomfield. John Miller, Jr., is one of the following-named children: Henry, Maria, John, Catharine, Elizabeth, Leah, Caroline, David and Polly. At twenty-two years of age, he began doing for himself, and September 23, 1852, Miss Sarah R. Miller became his wife. Their union has been fruitful in the birth of thirteen children---2Samuel H. (deceased), David N., John P. and Jacob M. (twins, deceased), William C. P., Hannah E., Tabitha E., Mary Belle, Oliver P., Susan M., an infant that died unnamed, Daisy D. and -Ethlene W. Two of the above are married, namely, Daniel N. to Florence R. Mattox, and Hannah E. to Henry Switz. Mrs. Miller is a native of Cumberland County, Penn., born March 15, 1832, a daughter of Rev. Samuel N. and Hannah (Phillips) Miller, who became residents of Greene County in 1850. John Miller, Jr., is one of the leading and substantial men of the county. He began life a poor boy, and by hard work, economy and good management has secured a competency. He owns a large and valuable farm of 645 acres, and besides carrying on farming in its various branches, deals largely in stock. In politics, he advocates the principles of the Republican party, and as a member of this organization was elected one of the Commissioners of the county in 1882. He and wife are members of the Church of God.

William M. Moss, editor and proprietor of the.Blooratield Perriocrat, is a native of this county, born in Stockton Township March 22,1852. His grandfather, Aquilla Moss, was a native of the Old Dominion, but removed,,to Kentucky at an early day; from there to Ohio, and later to Washington County Ind. In 1827, he removed to Greene County, where he ever afterward resided; he served in the war between the United States and Mexico; was the father of ten sons and two daughters, one son being Daniel H. Moss, father of William M.Daniel H., was married to Mary A. Mayfield, and two of their four chilciren are now living; William M: Moss, was raised in his native township and completed his literary schooling with two years' study at Farmersburg, in Ascension Seminary He afterward graduated at the Normal and Commercial Institute in Sullivan, and when nineteen years old began doing for himself. For ten years, beginning in 1870, he followed school teaching, and from 1876 to 1880 was Principal of Excelsior Seminary, in Vigo County. In June, 1880, he purchased the Bloomfield Democrat, and has since conducted one of the best county papers in Southern Indiana. Mr. Moss is a member of the F. & A. M., the K. of H., and in politics is an unswerving Democrat. He was married to Miss Hannah C., Scott, a native of Vermillion County, August 24, 1876, and they are parents of four children--Claude S. and Clyde, living; and Ada Blanche and Tardette, deceased.

T. C. Murray, manufacturer and dealer in boots and shoes, was born in Louisville, Ky., June 22, 1854, and is one of only two children living, in a family of ten, born to Dennis and Margaret (Coughlan) Mur- ray. His parents were natives respectively of Counties' Wexford and Cork, Ireland; were married at Manchester, England, in 1842, and four years after this event set sail for the United States. Mrs. Murray died in 187'7, but Mr. Murray has since re-married and resides at Bloomfield, working at shoe-making. T. C. Murray removed with his parents to Bloomington, Ind.. when two years old, and from there to Brown County, in 1857. He received only ordinary schooling advantages in youth, and when yet a boy learned the boot and shoe business of his father. He came with the . family to Bloomfield in 1874, and on the 11th of June, 1876, the nuptial ceremony of his union with Miss Matilda Doyle, was solemnized. Mrs. Murray bore her husband a family of four children—Sadie, Mary E., Dennis E. (deceased), and J. W.—but being afflicted with consumption bore her sufferings uncomplainingly, and finally gave up this life for the better one in the year 1883. Mr. Murray is among the enterprising young men of Bloomfield, and by strict attention to business and doing first-class work, has an established trade which requires his entire attention, and which he justly merits. In politics, he advocates the principles of the national Democratic party, and he is the present V. G. of Bloomfield Lodge, No. 457, I. 0. 0. F. He is a member of the Christian Church as was also Mrs. Murray.

Henry T. Neal, ex-Treasurer of Greene County, is a native of Clay County, Ind., born December 5, 1843, and is a son of Mahlon and Mary A. (Love) Neal, natives respectively of Ohio and Pennsylvania, and of Irish descent. The family settled in Clay County, Ind., in about 1838, where Mahlon Neal is yet living. His wife, after bearing and raising eleven children to years of maturity, died June, 1878, and he married Nancy Shepherd for his last wife, and this lady bore him two children. Henry T. Neal was raised on the old homestead in Ma native county, where 'he received such advantages as only were obtainable at that day. August 12, 1862, he became a private in Company K, Eighty fifth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and was discharged May 28, 1865, with A Sergeant's chevrons. Mr. Neal's first military service was in Kentucky, but from here they were transferred to Nashville, Tenn., afterward participating in the battle of Fort Donnelson. After assisting in the errection of the forts on the river at Franklin Mr Neal was at the battle of the Thompson's Station, Tenn., where with the whole of Coburn's brigade, be was captured by Van Dorn's command. From Columbia, the prisoners were taken to Shelbyville, where for some time their rations were entirely corn. They were then paroled, sent to Tullahoma, thence to Chattanooga and Knoxville, at the latter place being shown the gallows erected for the followers of Brownlow. From here they were sent via Lynchburg and Danville to Libby Prison, where for about forty days Mr. Neal passed through all the horrors of Southern prison life during the war. He was exchanged at City Point and taken to Parole Camp at Camp Chase, where he remained until being allowed to rejoin his regiment. He was principally employed doing guard duty along the N. & C. R. R., until March, 1864, when he joined Sherman's army at Chattanooga, and participated in all its important battles and movements, including the march to the sea, the campaigi through the Carolinas, and the Grand Review at Washington. Since then, Mr. Neal has been engaged in various business call.. ings, his present occupation being buying grain and looking after his mining interests. In 1879, he entered the County Treasurer's office as Principal, having been elected the preceding fall, and in 1880 was reelected, serving four years in all. He is a Republican, a member of the F. & A M., and was married, in 1868, to Sarah E. Wboley, by whom he is the father of two children=-Elmer E. and Ella.

Amos D. Neidigh, a native of the " Buckeye State," was born in 1850, and came with his parents, Peter and Rebecca (Deven) Neidigh, to Greene County, Ind., in 1852. He was here raised to manhood, received but an ordinary education, and when fifteen years old embarked. on life's voyage for himself For a time he was engaged in stock-driving, but having a strong inclination for mechanical pursuits he learned blacksmithing, and has principally been engaged in engineering, blacksmithing and farming. He is one of the stirring men of his township, is a member of the I. 0. 0. F. and F. & A. M., owns 160 acres of land in the county and is the present Real Estate Appraiser and Assessor of Richland Township. In politics, he advocates Republican measures and was married to Miss Laura Simpson in 1877, by whom he is the father of three children—Oscar D., Freeling H. and Claudius S. Mr. Neidigh's mother died in about 1865, and his father in about 1879.

Dr. Horace V. Norvell was born in Lawrence County, Ind., July 20, 1839, and is a son of Dr. R. G. and Amanda H. Norvell. Receiving a common school education in his youth, he became a resident of Bloomfield when eighteen years old, and this has been his place of residence, largely, ever since. In 1861, he served as Deputy County Treasurer, afterward engaging in merchandising for some time. He read medicine and attended lectures at the Ohio Medical College, after which he practiced his profession in Bloomfield for a number of years. In 1869, he received the appointment of United States Examining Surgeon for Greene County, but previous to this was elected Chairman of the Democratic County Central Committee. In the latter position, he has served various times, and in 1878 was elected a member of the Democratic State Central Committee. Dr. Norvell has taken an active part in all matters of public interest, especially in political matters. In 1874, be was elected by a good majority Treasurer of the county, and two years later he was re-elected with a majority of 698 votes, which, in a Republican county, reflects much on Dr. Norvell's personal popularity. During the session of the State Legislature of 1882-83, he was made a Director of the Southern Prison of the State, and is yet serving as such. In politics, he is a stanch Democrat, is a member of several leading secret orders; and October 25, 1871, he was married to Miss Emma, daughter of Dr. W. C. Smydth, of Worthington, to which union three sons have been born--Ralph N., Max W. and Horace R.

George W. Osbon, a son of Asa and Parmelia (Lockwood) Osbon,and one of three living 'children in a family of eight, was born on the present site of Mineral City, Ind., August 15, 1830. The family settled in Greene County in about 1825, but later removed to Tippecanoe County, and while making that their residence the father and four daughters died. The mother, with the remainder of the family, then returned to Greene County, married Adam Stropes, and died in about 1873. George W. Osbon began learning the carpenter's trade when eighteen years old, serving a three years' apprenticeship. In July, 1850, Mary, daughter of Thomas Patterson, became his wife, and to them eight children have been born, only Thomas P., Virginia B., Emmett L., Mary, John A. and Frank, yet living. November 20, 1861, Mr. Osbon became a private in Company E, Fifty-ninth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, but shortly afterward was made Fifth Duty Sergeant, and at New Madrid was advanced to First Sergeant; NovemberZ 1862, he was discharged by reason of promotion to Second Lieutenant, but not receiving his commission until February 5, 1863, his name was not on the pay-roll, and for three months he not only served without pay, but furnished his own rations. He was promoted to the Captaincy of his company in August, 1863, serving as such until July, 1864, when, owing to illness in his family, resigned and returned home. Capt. Osbon saw much hard service in the late war, being a participant in the engagements of New Madrid, Island No. 10, siege and battle of Corinth, Port Gibson, Magnolia, Raymond, Jackson, Champion Hills, reduction of Vicksburg and Mission Ridge. In February, he returned home on veteran furlough, but rejoined his command at Huntsville the succeeding April, and was employed doing guard duty until his return home. Since the war, he has farmed, worked at his trade, conducted a provision store, and since 18'74 has served in the capacity of Justice of the Peace. Besides administering to the duties of his office, Capt. Osbon is actively engaged in a general loan and insurance business, representing nine of the leading insurance companies known. In January, 1883, his partnership with S. B. Graham was formed, which has since continued successfully under the firm name of Osbon & Graham. Capt. Osbon is a Mason, an Odd Fellow, a Republican in politics, and in 1878 was admitted a member of the Greene County bar.

W. D. Ritter, son of Moses and grandson of J ames Ritter, was born at Newberry, in Cass Township, Greer County, Ind., April 7, 1827. Moses Ritter was a native of. North Carolina, and through his antipathy of slavery migrated to Indiana in 1817, and for five years lived in Washington County. For the same reason, the family of John 0' Neal left South Carolina, and coming to Indiana settled in Washington County, where first Moses Ritter met Achsah O'Neal, who became his wife in 1819. In about 1822, these two families came to the vicinity of where Newberry now i6; Mr. O'Neal entering the land on which the village now stands, and which he laid out and named in honor of Newberry District, from whence he came in South Carolina. Mr. Ritter located in Daviess County, some four miles south of the Greene County line, afterward moving to Newberry, and from there to Bloomfield. Violet Ritter, the widowed mother of Moses, together with the remainder of the Ritter family, came to Greene County in 1822, and made this her home the remainder of her days. These two families became intimately connected with the early history of Greene County, which could not properly be written without saying much concerning them. John O'Neal was an old-fashioned Quaker preacher, and Baber's history of the county says this concerning him: " His house was the home for all the Indians and preachers, and was made the stopping place for the olden time Judges, lawyers, preachers, prophets, disciples, Jews and Gentiles." Baber also says this of Moses Ritter: "He lived in Greene. County many years, and filled numerous offices of trust. It is said that 'an honest man is the noblest work of God;' he entirely filled that measure." W. D. Ritter has never known any home other than in Greene County. His early life and advantages were similar to that of the average boy of that early period. Since the organization of the Republican party, he has been identified with it, but previous to 1856 was a Whig, as was also his father. He has served Richland Township eleven years as Trustee, and is universally acknowledged as one of the best read men in the county. In 1859, he married Mrs. Caroline (Sanford) Tebbutt, who was born in Middlesex, England, December 26, 1831. They own 200 acres of land near Bloomfield, and are the parents of this family: Levi, Grant, Helen, Emma; Anna and William.